A University of Illinois Chicago team has summarized research on intermittent fasting to provide insights into its effects on the body and to provide advice for people incorporating these diets in everyday life. The team has also presented recommendations for future research into these popular diet methods.
Three main types of intermittent fasting were reviewed: 1) alternate-day fasting — consuming 0-500 calories on alternating feast days, 2) the 5:2 diet — two fast days and five feast days per week and, 3) time-restricted eating — eating only during a prescribed time window each day.
These diets produce mild to moderate weight loss, 3% to 8% loss from baseline, over short durations of eight to 12 weeks. The researchers also noted that intermittent fasting is on par with traditional calorie-restricted diets and shows results in improving some cardiometabolic risk factors.
Additionally, intermittent fasting is generally safe, producing few gastrointestinal, neurological, hormonal or metabolic effects. Other findings included:
- Fasting works for individuals of normal weight as well as those with obesity
- People with insulin resistance or prediabetes benefit from intermittent fasting, losing similar weight amounts as those without those conditions
- Body composition for weight loss during intermittent fasting is similar to calorie-restriction diets, with 75% of the weight lost being fat and 25% lean mass (muscle)
- A myth is that people are going to feel weak and not be able to concentrate during fasting. Study participants actually had a better ability to concentrate; the increased energy may be an evolutionary response to give strength to seek food
More research needed
The review also outlined areas for future research on intermittent fasting including:
- Long-term, randomized controlled clinical trials of all three fasting diets
- Studies that examine the effects of fasting diets on people with conditions such as diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome and thyroid disorders
- Studies that compare the three diets with each other
- Studies that look at the effects of fasting to learn more about the mechanisms that underlie the metabolic improvements observed with fasting
“We really do need long-term data to see if people can do intermittent fasting for the long term,” the lead researcher said.
Advice for individuals
For those who want to try intermittent fasting, and for their clinicians, the review offers these guidelines:
Who can do intermittent fasting?
- Adolescents with severe obesity
- Adults with normal weight, overweight or obesity
- Adults with hypertension or high cholesterol
- Patients with insulin resistance or prediabetes
- Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes
Advice for starting intermittent fasting
- Plan on a one- or two-week adjustment to fasting. Headaches are common but can subside with increased water intake
- Boost fiber through eating fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
- Eat at least 50 grams of lean protein on the fast days when alternating feast days to control hunger and prevent excessive lean mass loss
What should be monitored during intermittent fasting?
- Adverse effects: Doctors should assess adverse effects during the first three months of the diet
- Nutrient deficiencies: Clinicians should monitor vitamin and mineral levels
- Medications: Medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose should be monitored and may need to be reduced if the patient loses weight
- Therapy: Patients should participate in behavioral change programs to help achieve long-term weight management.
All research on this web site is the property of Leslie Beck Nutrition Consulting Inc. and is protected by copyright. Keep in mind that research on these matters continues daily and is subject to change. The information presented is not intended as a substitute for medical treatment. It is intended to provide ongoing support of your healthy lifestyle practices.