Cauliflower

Cauliflower: king of the cabbages. A member of the cruciferous family of vegetables, this cancer-fighting vegetable was grown in ancient times in the Middle East. The cruciferous family of vegetables - which includes broccoli, cabbage, bok choy and turnip - derive their name from their four-petaled flowers, which looks like a crucifer or cross. (The word "cruciferous" comes from the Latin word for cross.) 

Cauliflower

Nutrition Notes

Cauliflower and other cruciferous vegetables are famous for their strikingly high concentration of cancer-fighting chemicals calls glucosinolates. When you eat cruciferous vegetables, glucosinolates are broken down by bacteria in the digestive tract and transformed into compounds called isothiocynates and indole-3-carbinol.

Scientists are learning that these so-called cruciferous chemicals are potent protectors against cancer.  They help eliminate cancer-causing substances by regulating your body's detoxification enzymes. Researchers suspect that the various compounds in cruciferous vegetables work together to promote a greater cancer-fighting effect. A large body of evidence suggests that a regular intake of cruciferous vegetables, like cauliflower, helps guard against many types of cancer including non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, lung, bladder, colorectal, prostate and breast cancers.

Cauliflower does more than add cancer-fighting phytochemicals to your meal. It's also a good source of vitamin C: one-half cup of cooked cauliflower provides one-third of a day's worth of vitamin C. Cauliflower also supplies vitamin A, folate, calcium, potassium and selenium, an antioxidant that works with vitamin C to strengthen the immune system.

Here's the nutrient breakdown of raw cauliflower, per 1/2 cup serving:

Calories13 kcalFat0 gProtein

1 g 

Carbohydrate3 g Fibre1 gCalcium12 mg Magnesium 8 mg Potassium 160 mg Selenium 0.3 mcg Beta-carotene 4 mcg Folate30 mcg Vitamin C 25 mg 

Varieties

The most commonly used cauliflower is white but you can also buy purple cauliflower and orange cauliflower. Purple cauliflower cooks faster than white cauliflower and has a milder taste. When cooked, its colour changes from purple to green.

Orange cauliflower is a relatively new variety that was first discovered in Canada.  Its bright orange colour means it's a good source of the antioxidant beta-carotene. 

Broccoflower is a cross between broccoli and cauliflower. It looks like cauliflower except it is light, bright green in colour. When cooked, it's tastes very similar to broccoli.

Buying

Choose cauliflower with thick, compact, heads of creamy white florets.  The florets, or bud clusters, should not be loose or separated. A head of cauliflower should be heavy for its size and the leaves surrounding it should be bright green and show no signs of wilting.

Avoid cauliflower that is blemished or whose florets have started to turn brown, which is a sign the head is getting old.  Check the bottom of cauliflower head - if it is soft, it's no longer fresh. If the florets have started to flower, the cauliflower is over ripe. 

Keep in mind that the size of a cauliflower head is not a sign of quality, so buy one that sized to suits your needs.

Storing

Store unwashed cauliflower, stem side down, in an open plastic bag or perforated plastic bag in the refrigerator. Storing cauliflower stem side down prevents excess moisture from developing in the floret clusters, which causes it to spoil more quickly. Cauliflower will keep in the fridge for 5 to 7 days. 

Pre-cut cauliflower loses its freshness faster; it will keep for up to 2 days. Cauliflower that's been blanched and then frozen will keep for up to one year.

Leftover cooked cauliflower can be stored for two to three days.

Preparing

Fresh cauliflower is best enjoyed from September to the end of November, its peak season in Canada. All parts of the plant are edible and make good additions to soups and stocks.

Cauliflower should not be washed until it is going to be cooked or eaten. First, remove the outer leaves from the cauliflower head. Then remove the stalk from the head by cutting around it with a sharp knife. When the stalk is removed, the core with the florets attached will be remaining.

Remove the florets by cutting each cluster from the core, leaving a little stem with each cluster. If the florets are larger than needed, cut each into smaller uniform pieces. Rinse the florets well in cold water. You may also soak them in salt water or vinegar water to help force any insects that might be lodged within the florets.

To retain flavour and minimize nutrient loss, cook cauliflower rapidly by steaming or roasting in a hot (450 F) oven for 10-15 minutes. Over-cooking causes cauliflower to release sulfurous compounds that produce an unpleasant odor and bitter taste. And you'll lose more phytochemicals. You can check the "doneness" of cauliflower by pricking it with a fork a few minutes before the suggested cooking time is up. If it's fork-tender but still slightly firm, it's ready to eat.

Eating

Healthy Ways to Enjoy

At Breakfast:

  • Add a handful of cauliflower florets to a vegetable omelet or frittata.
  • Toss carrot, cauliflower, apple and ginger into a juicer for an antioxidant-rich start to your day.

At Lunch:

  • Puree cooked cauliflower along with your favourite herbs and spices for a quick and nutritious soup. Add to vegetable or chicken stock.
  • Add a handful of cauliflower florets to a store-bought or homemade soup when you bring it to a simmer on the stove.
  • Use the leaves and stems of cauliflower in soup stocks.
  • Add raw cauliflower florets to your next green salad.
  • Add a serving of raw cauliflower to your brown bag lunch to boost your vegetable intake.

At Dinner:

  • Sauté cauliflower with minced garlic, ginger and a touch of soy sauce for an Asian-inspired side dish.
  • Boost the antioxidant content of cauliflower by sautéing it with dash of of vivid yellow turmeric, another potent antioxidant.
  • Sprinkle cauliflower florets with cayenne, extra virgin olive oil and a touch of salt and bake for 10-15 minutes at 350 F for a spicy side dish that melts in your mouth.
  • Serve steamed cauliflower dusted with grated Parmesan cheese or grated part skim cheddar cheese.
  • Mash cooked cauliflower with a little butter or chicken stock as a low-carb substitute for mashed potatoes.
  • Add cauliflower florets to your favorite curry recipe.
  • Roast cauliflower with parboiled potatoes and carrots in oven for 5-7 minutes at 450 F.

At Snacks:

  • Make a veggie platter with cauliflower florets, cucumber slices, celery and carrots sticks with your favourite dip.

More Information

Did you know that?

  • The compact head of a cauliflower called a "curd".
  • Cauliflower lacks green chlorophyll because the leaves of the plant shield it from the sun.

For more information visit The World's Healthiest Foods.