Eating spicy food more frequently as part of a daily diet is associated with a lower risk of death, suggests a new study. The association was also found for deaths from cancer, coronary heart disease and respiratory disorders.
This is an observational study so no definitive conclusions can be drawn about cause and effect, but the authors call for more research that may "lead to updated dietary recommendations and development of functional foods."
Previous research has suggested that beneficial effects of spices and their bioactive ingredient, capsaicin, include anti-obesity, antioxidant, anti-inflammation and anticancer properties.
An international team led by researchers at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences examined the association between consumption of spicy foods as part of a daily diet and the total risk and causes of death.
They undertook a prospective study of 487,375 participants, aged 30-79 years, from the China Kadoorie Biobank. Participants were enrolled between 2004-2008 and followed up for morbidities and mortality.
All participants completed a questionnaire about their general health, physical measurements, and consumption of spicy foods, as well as red meat, vegetables and alcohol.
During a follow-up period of 7.2 years, there were 20,224 deaths.
Compared with participants who ate spicy foods less than once a week, those who consumed spicy foods 1 or 2 days a week were at a 10% reduced risk of death. And those who ate spicy foods 3 to 5 and 6 or 7 days a week were at a 14% reduced risk of death. In other words, participants who ate spicy foods almost every day had a relative 14% lower risk of death compared to those who consumed spicy foods less than once a week.
The association was similar in both men and women, and was stronger in those who did not consume alcohol.
Frequent consumption of spicy foods was also linked to a lower risk of death from cancer, heart disease and respiratory diseases; this was more evident in women than men.
Fresh and dried chili peppers were the most commonly used spices in those who reported eating spicy foods weekly, and further analysis showed those who consumed fresh chili tended to have a lower risk of death from cancer, heart disease, and diabetes.
Fresh chili is richer in capsaicin, vitamin C and other nutrients than dried chili.
Should people eat spicy food to improve health? Experts say it’s too early to tell, and call for more research to test whether these associations are the direct result of spicy food intake or whether they are a marker for other dietary or lifestyle factors.
Source: BMJ, August 4, 2015.
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